Physics students learn the speed of light, c, is the same for all inertial observers but no one has ever actually measured it in one direction. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video. For 50% off your first month of any crate, go to https://kiwico.com/veritasium50
Huge thanks to Destin from Smarter Every Day for always being open and willing to engage in new ideas. If you haven't subscribed already, what are you waiting for: https://ve42.co/SED
The script was written in consultation with subject matter experts: Prof. Geraint Lewis, University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Prof. Emeritus Allen Janis, University of Pittsburgh Prof. Clifford M. Will, University of Florida https://ve42.co/cmw The stuff that's correct is theirs. Any errors are mine.
The Philosophy of Space and Time Reichenbach, H. (2012). Courier Corporation.
Anderson, R., Vetharaniam, I., & Stedman, G. E. (1998). Conventionality of synchronisation, gauge dependence and test theories of relativity. Physics reports, 295(34), 93180. https://ve42.co/Anderson98
A review article about simultaneity — Janis, Allen, "Conventionality of Simultaneity", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) https://ve42.co/janis
Will, C. M. (1992). Clock synchronization and isotropy of the oneway speed of light. Physical Review D, 45(2), 403. https://ve42.co/Will92
Zhang, Y. Z. (1995). Test theories of special relativity. General Relativity and Gravitation, 27(5), 475493. https://ve42.co/Zhang95
Mansouri, R., & Sexl, R. U. (1977). A test theory of special relativity: I. Simultaneity and clock synchronization. General relativity and Gravitation, 8(7), 497513. https://ve42.co/Sexl
Research and writing by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animations by Ivàn Tello VFX, music, and space animations by Jonny Hyman Filmed by Raquel Nuno
Special thanks for reviewing earlier drafts of this video to: Dominic Walliman, Domain of Science: https://ve42.co/DoS Henry Reich, Minutephysics: https://ve42.co/MP My Patreon supporters