Vitamin A is needed for immunity and is cheapVitamin A (which is retinol) and immunityWHO reporthttps://www.who.int/emergencies/disea...https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamin...Vitamin A has several important functionshelping natural defence against illness and infection (immune system) work properlyhelping vision in dim lightkeeping skin and the lining of some parts of the body, such as the nose, healthyGood sources of vitamin AGood sources of vitamin A (retinol) include:cheeseeggsoily fishfortified lowfat spreadsmilk and yoghurtliver and liver pâtéIf you're pregnant you should avoid eating liver or liver products, (NHS, 2023)Excess vitamin A is toxic. Vitamin A deficiencyhttps://www.who.int/data/nutrition/nl...What are the consequences and implications?Night blindness is one of the first signs of vitamin A deficiency. In its more severe forms, vitamin A deficiency contributes to blindness by making the cornea very dry, thus damaging the retina and cornea. An estimated 250 000–500 000 children who are vitamin Adeficient become blind every year, and half of them die within 12 months of losing their sight. World’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness.Deficiency of vitamin A is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections, Vitamin A deficiency also contributes to maternal mortality and other poor outcomes of pregnancy and lactation. It also diminishes the ability to fight infections. Even mild, subclinical deficiency can be a problem, because it may increase children's risk for respiratory and diarrhoeal infections, decrease growth rates, slow bone development and decrease the likelihood of survival from serious illness.Beta caroteneRedorange pigment, in plants and fruits, especially carrots and colourful vegetables. The body converts beta carotene into vitamin AThe advantage of dietary beta carotene is that the body only converts as much as it needs. Healthy antioxidantMay prevent cognitive declinehttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama...May help lung functionhttps://thorax.bmj.com/content/61/4/320Both may be due to preventing oxidative stresshttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/arti...Foods rich in beta carotene:Apricots, Asparagus, Broccoli, Carrots, Chives, Dandelion leaves, Grapefruit, (Chilli powder, oregano, paprika, parsley), Kale, Onions, Peas, Peppers, Plums, Pumpkin, Spinach, Squash, Sweet potatoes.Role of Vitamin A in the Immune Systemhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...Needed for mucous membrane innate immunity (respiratory and GI)Essential for the normal function of many immune cells such as T lymphocytesVitamin A deficiency is associated with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in childrenhttps://www.youtube.com/redirect?even...Beijing, Feb, 2020N = 122 children, (0 – 15)52 sMPPSevere Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia70 nsMPPNonsevere Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumoniaSerum levels of vitamins A, D, and E were measured and compared, and correlated with nsMPP and sMPP.ResultsThe age was older in the sMPP samples than that in the nsMPP samples.(7.12 vs. 4.01) So older children suffered more severe infections.Vitamin A deficiency was present in both the nsMPP and sMPP samples.Vitamin A levels were significantly lower in the sMPP serum than that in the nsMPP serum. (0.15 vs. 0.19)Vitamin A deficiency was definedDeficiency, less than 0.2 mg/L, Subclinical vitamin A deficiency, 0.2–0.3 mg/LNormal vitamin A level by 0.3–0.7 mg/L. So, children with lower vitamin A levels suffered more severe infections.Vitamins E and D levels were also lower in sMPP childrenVitamin E (7.4 vs. 8.22)Vitamin D (23.08 vs. 32.07)Both sMPP and nsMPP did not show a deficiency of vitamins E and D. Vitamin A deficiency OR 0.001 – 0.334, (P=0.009) associated with sMPPIncidence of vitamin A deficiencyVitamin A deficiency in under 6 years was 85% of childrenVitamin A deficiency in over 6 years was 62.5% of childrenVitamin A supplementation could reduce the incidence of sMPP. ConclusionsVitamin A deficiency is associated with sMPP and more likely present in the younger sMPP children. Therefore, it is important to monitor and supplement vitamin A in Mycoplasma pneumonia patients.